Pakistan, with a total area of 796,100 square kilometers (km2), is located in Southern Asia. It is bordered by India in the east, China in the north-east, Afghanistan in the north and north-west, Iran in the south-west and the Arabian Sea to the south. Pakistan is divided into four provinces, namely the Punjab, Sindh, North West Frontier Province (NWFP), and Balochistan.
Pakistan can be divided into three hydrological units:
The internal renewable water resources are estimated at 248 cubic kilometers per year (km3/year). Surface runoff is estimated at 243 km3, while groundwater resources are about 55 km3, most being the baseflow of the river system.
Total water withdrawal in 1991 was estimated at 156 km3, of which 96.8% for agricultural purposes (1.6% is withdrawn for domestic use and another 1.6% for industrial use). Groundwater abstraction for agriculture has been roughly estimated at 55 km3/year, which is approximately the volume of groundwater renewable resources. However, in some areas, development appears to have reached the point where groundwater is being mined. Most urban and rural water is supplied from groundwater. Over 50% of the village water supply is obtained through hand pumps installed by private households. In saline groundwater areas, irrigation canals are the main source of domestic water.
The World Bank reports that at least 80 countries have water shortages and 2 billion people lack access to clean water. More disturbingly, the World Health Organization has reported that 1 billion people lack enough water to simply meet their basic needs, unfortunately in many countries water is scarce or contaminated.
Pure Aqua provides wide range of filtration and economical solutions based on the Pakistan's water resources. Pakistan's main water resources are:
Surface water “is water from river, lake or fresh water wetland, which can be treated using different methods, such as Ultrafiltration Systems, Media Water Filters, Brackish Water RO.
Desalination can be used for water from ocean, or sea source, which can be treated using Sea Water Reverse Osmosis Systems; Desalination Systems
Ground Water or brackish water is from water located in the pore space of soil and rock “Borehole well”, which can be treated using Reverse Osmosis Systems, Media Water Filters, Chemical Dosing, UV Sterilizers.
Government water supply, which could have high level of hardness or high level of chlorine, can be treated with Water Softeners, Media Water Filters
Aqua Shield manufactures water treatment systems that meet the World Health Organization requirements.
Reverse osmosis is a hot topic in the water treatment industry. With the lowest energy requirements, some of the highest recovery rates, and one of the best rejection rates on the market, it's no wonder people are interested in learning more about it. What is the definition of reverse osmosis, though? How does it work? Let's take a look into the heart of a Aqua Shield RO System and break it down for you to understand. As anyone could guess, it is the process of osmosis backwards. Osmosis is the passage of water through a protein membrane (like our skin, or the inside of a plant cell) to equalize the concentration of particles dissolved in the water. The protein membrane allows water to pass through, but molecules larger than water (things like minerals, salts, and bacteria) cannot. Water flows back and forth until the concentration is equal on both sides of the membrane, and an equilibrium is formed. Let's apply this knowledge to water purification. We want to drink water from a lake or stream, but it contains too high concentration of contaminants like salt, minerals, and bacteria, that make it undrinkable. By applying pressure to water as it passes through a membrane, the water can be forced to move away from the membrane rather than attempting to form an equilibrium like normal. This against-flow motion is where the "reverse" in "reverse osmosis" comes from. A pump works well for this process. Water is forced through the membrane, which like a super-fine particle filter, blocks an extreme majority of contaminants from coming through.As a purification process, it has a number of advantages as well as disadvantages. In water treatment, TFC membranes can usually remove between 96 and 99% of most contaminants, including salts and minerals, dyes, particles, bacteria, and hazardous metals. Because of the way reverse osmosis works, however, you can never truly remove all of a contaminant. You may purify down to a fraction of a fraction of a percent, but the contaminant can never be truly eliminated with reverse osmosis. Treatment systems also requires a high-grade pump, because the rejection rate is primarily dependent on the pressure applied to the membrane. That being said, smaller units have smaller ratios of permeate (clean, purified product) to waste water. This makes media filtration or other conventional filtration more effective in smaller scales (like residential settings). Now that we've answered the biggest question about Membranes Systems by Aqua Shield, let's take a closer look at how we build our advanced water treatment systems and how they work.
A Reverse Osmosis System is built of five basic parts:
1-Pressure Vessels & Membranes
Obviously, a Reverse Osmosis System wouldn't get very far without membrane elements. The proteins that make up membrane elements vary depending on the kind of intake water and ending clarity. There are membrane elements for brackish water, seawater, hospital-grade disinfection, and membranes designed to remove specific contaminants to name a few. If there is a water treatment need, you can be sure there is certainly a membrane element for the job. The size of the task (municipal, commercial, or industrial) will determine the size and number of membranes in a system. There can be anywhere from a single two and a half inch membrane (like in an under-sink Reverse Osmosis System) to hundreds of eight inch membranes all working together (a typical reverse osmosis plant).
2-Reverse Osmosis Skid
The best way make your Reverse Osmosis system as durable as possible is with a powder coated, carbon steel frame to mount all of your components on. It's resistant to the elements, designed for the heavy vibration of high-pressure pumps, and mounts to the ground to ensure that it will last a lifetime.
Most Reverse Osmosis Systems come with a cartridge filter to ensure that no particles large enough to damage the membranes come anywhere near them. This cartridge is usually a five micron spun polypropylene filter, but can vary upon request. The cartridge comes in a durable casing that can handle the pressure from the main feed or booster pumps.
4-Reverse Osmosis High Pressure Pump
Without a high-grade pump, the rejection rate for a Reverse Osmosis System isn't viable in most commercial or industrial settings. It is vital to the system to ensure that the pump is matched to the membrane quantity and size appropriately. Usually, the higher the horsepower on the intake pump, the better the rejection and recovery rates of permeate.
Lastly, the Reverse Osmosis System has to be controlled by a human operator. At Aqua Shield, we use advanced PLCs or a solid-state microprocessor depending on how advanced the controls need to be. The controls can also be used to manage multiple systems simultaneously, effectively making a one-man water production plant.Reverse Osmosis Systems can have a number of other components built onto or into them as extra components as well. The entire skid can be built into a containerized system, for example, so your Desalination by RO System is always on the go. There are a number of supplemental skids that can be attached to an RO System as well, for tasks like membrane cleaning, pretreatment, chemical dosing, and a number of other jobs as necessary.
If there is a necessity for water treatment, chances are a Reverse Osmosis System can do the job. There's a wide array of industries that benefit from having high-purity water, as well as a large number of applications where water treatment is required. Because of the extreme volumes of water required, a Reverse Osmosis System is often the ideal, economical solution, requiring less energy than most large-scale treatment methods. Because they consume less energy, a Reverse Osmosis System is often the environmentally friendly solution as well. At Aqua Shield, we pride ourselves as being a go-to source for information and service helping you solve your municipal, commercial, or industrial water treatment needs.
Reverse Osmosis is an ideal water treatment solution in most types of water. Generally speaking, all major water sources from a treatment standpoint can be broken down into three major categories: tap water, also known as municipal sources, groundwater, which includes brackish water, and saltwater. The biggest distinction between these three types is the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) content of each type. As a rule of thumb, the American Health Association requires that drinking water is under 1,000 PPM TDS.
Tap water typically comes through a pre-existing infrastructure like city pipes or a damming system. Reverse osmosis is often used in a tap water environment to reduce hardness, or the debris deposited in water from traveling in metal pipes. Total dissolved solids is often a target of water purification in tap water systems. This type of Reverse Osmosis Systems are ideal in places like power plants, pharmaceuticals, laboratories, and hospitals, where an extreme purity of water is crucial to the industry. Tap water typically has a TDS of under 1,000 PPM.
Underground reservoirs of water are often brackish or highly brackish, meaning they contain large volumes of salt, but not enough to be considered salt water. Groundwater reverse osmosis is very common, and one of the best uses of a Reverse Osmosis System to date. Groundwater is most often purified for the agriculture industry, the mining industry, and for residential use. Groundwater is also a prized target of the bottling industry, because the unique mineral combinations often have an appealing taste. Brackish water usually has a TDS of 5,000 PPM or less, but can come in concentrations of up to 12,000 PPM.
Salt water reverse osmosis (sometimes referred to simply as desalination) is the turning of saltwater into drinking water. Ocean water has up to 45,000 PPM TDS. Typically, for environmental reasons, a bore hole is dug in the ocean for this kind of reverse osmosis, but an open intake is more cost effective. The biggest uses of desalination come in providing water in areas that lack a regular supply of fresh water.
If you work with an RO, you understand that the feed water must be preconditioned to protect the membranes from fouling and premature failure. An RO membrane functions much like a cross flow filter. The membrane is constructed of a porous material that allows water to pass through the membrane, but rejects up to 99% of the dissolved solids at the membrane surface. The dissolved salts are concentrated in the Reverse Osmosis reject water, or brine stream, where they are discharge to waste.
As the RO System continues to operate, the dissolved and suspended solids in the feed water tend to accumulate along the membrane surface. If these solids are allowed to build up, they eventually restrict the passage of water through the membranes, resulting in a loss of throughput. (The throughput capacity of the membranes is commonly referred to as the flux rate, and is measured in gallons per square foot of membranes surface area per day.) Early in the development of membranes systems, little was known about which impurities in the Reverse Osmosis feed water are likely to cause fouling and a corresponding reduction in flux. Today, many of these troublesome impurity treatments have been identified, and preventive treatments have been devised that greatly reduce membranes fouling, thus prolonging the life of the RO plant.
Autopsies of failed membranes modules have revealed a build-up of foulants caused by mineral scales such as calcium carbonate; colloidal materials like clays and silica; dead and living microorganism; carbon particles; and chemical attach by oxidizing agents like chlorine, ozone, or permanganate. Likewise, dissolved metals like iron and aluminum, whether naturally occurring or added as a coagulant, can cause premature fouling and failure of the membrane.
A detailed chemical analysis of the RO feed water is an absolute necessity for identifying potential foulants. This should include a measurement of the hardness (calcium and magnesium), barium, strontium, alkalinity, pH, and chlorine. The data from the chemical analysis can be used by the RO equipment designers to determine the optimum membrane array that will both minimize the tendency of scale and deposit formation and maximize the recovery and flux rate.
For example, the Langelier Stability Index (LSI), a measure of the calcium carbonate scaling tendency of the water, is computed from the water analysis to determine the maximum permissible concentration of dissolved minerals in the reject stream before scale deposition becomes a problem. Because of the number of variables that must be considered, these calculations are difficult to do with pencil and paper. Fortunately, the membranes manufacturers have developed computer programs that make these computations fast and easy to perform where the user can project the performance of membranes at actual feed conditions.
Although a water analysis is helpful in predicting the tendency of dissolved minerals to cause problems in the RO System, it does not always forecast the fouling tendency of colloids and other finely dispersed suspended solids. The Silt Density Index (SDI) is a useful tool for quantifying the fouling tendency of the feed water. This test is conducted by filtering a sample through a 0.45 micron (µm) filter and measuring the time required to collect a unit volume of filtrate. An index number is calculated from this data. Traditionally, a SDI value of less than 3.0 is desirable for RO feed waters. The SDI measurement has certain limitations in that it does not model the cross flow design of an RO membrane.
In one word: analysis. Every source of water is different, and you never know what's in your water until you have it analyzed. The water analysis, LSI, SDI, or CFI values are used to determine the precise pretreatment requirements for a particular RO System. Since water supplies vary considerably from one location to another, each pretreatment requirement will be different. On average, most Reverse Osmosis Systems need an antiscalant injector or water softener to prevent damage to the membrane.
Ion exchange is a popular method for reducing the potential for mineral scale formation on the membrane surface. Ion exchange softening uses sodium to replace scale-forming ions such as calcium, magnesium, barium, strontium, iron, and aluminum to prevent damage to the membrane elements.. The sodium forms very soluble salts, which are readily rejected by the Reverse Osmosis System and do not readily form mineral scales on the membrane surface. A sodium-cycle softener is regenerated with sodium chloride brine. The spent regenerant, along with the softener rinse water, must be discharged to waste. It is because of this that ion exchange is recommended for applications that have high metal contents in the treated water.
Generally speaking, chlorination is a double-edged sword when it comes to Reverse Osmosis Systems. As a method of disinfection, chlorination is not only efficient and practical, but it is cost-effective as well. The only problem is that chlorine is too caustic for membrane elements, and can cause serious damage. Dechlorination is a kind of chemical injection that adds a chemical that forms salts with chlorine, making it readily rejected by the membrane elements. In this circumstance, dechlorination is a must as far as water treatment is concerned. Without dechlorination, reverse osmosis membranes are not only ineffective when it comes to chlorinated water, but the chlorine will simply destroy the protein membrane.
Just as acidic solutiosn aren't good for membranes, caustic solutions are equally damaging to membrane elements. Acid injection may be incorporated into the RO pretreatment system to control pH and minimize the scale-forming tendency of the feed water. Acid injection is indicated if the scale-forming tendency of the brine stream is above +0.3 as measured by the LSI. Either sulfuric or hydrochloric acid can be used for this purpose. However, sulfuric acid is less costly, and is more commonly used.
Antiscalants have been shown to be effective in extending the intervals between chemical cleanings of the RO membranes. These products are generally formulated to include inorganic phosphates, organophosphonates, and dispersants. Use Antiscalant products that have been approved by the membrane manufacturer, and follow all direction in applying and controlling the product dosage. Some Antiscalant contain negatively charged polymers and dispersants that can react with cationic polymers that might be dosed up stream prior to the media filters. The Antiscalant must be compatible with these polymers; otherwise, the reaction product will foul the membranes.
Despite all efforts to protect the RO System from fouling and loss of flux, eventually the membranes will require chemical cleaning. A well-designed RO System will include provisions for a cleaning skid to facilitate the cleaning process. The skid should include a chemical tank, solution heater, recirculating pump, drains, hoses, and all other connection and fittings required accomplishing a complete chemical cleaning of the RO modules.
Various chemical cleaning agents are available for maintaining RO membranes. The type and amount of foulant will dictate the most effective cleaning agent. Acid cleaners’ best remove mineral scale deposits. Hydrogen peroxide is commonly used to clean and sanitize membranes to correct or prevent biofouling problems. In some cases, a mild solvent such as methanol is used. Because of the number of variables involved in the selection and application of these cleaning agents, contact the membrane manufacturer, equipment supplier, or a qualified chemical consultant for specific advice and recommendations on how to accomplish an effective cleaning.
The operation of the RO System should be carefully monitored to predict when the membranes would require cleaning. As a rule of thumb, cleaning is indicated when the normalized flux rate decreases by 10%. Under ideal condition, assuming that the RO pretreatment system is properly designed and operated, the frequency between membrane cleanings should be 3 months or more. Cleaning every 1 to 3 months is considered a fair performance, and suggests that some improvements in the pretreatment system should be considered. Cleaning frequencies every month or more indicate a change in raw water quality, a problem with the pretreatment system, or a problem with the operation of the RO unit.
Reverse osmosis is a reliable method for producing high-purity water. However, most water supplies require some form of RO pretreatment such as softening, media filtration, activated carbon, or chemical injection to protect the membranes from premature fouling or failure. The pretreatment requirements will vary from location to location, but the overall objective remains the same: to maintain the design flux rates, minimize the membranes cleaning frequency, and prolong the useful life of the RO equipment.
Many factors affect the flow rate of water. The size of pipe, the mains pressure, the quality of source water going through the filtration media etc. It also depends on whether you are filtering just for drinking water or for the whole house. For drinking water via a filtration system, filtered water will flow at a slightly slower rate than unfiltered water, because the filter media restricts the flow of the water. This restriction helps the filter trap unwanted contaminants. The slower flow rate allows the water more time to come in contact with the filter, thus optimizing the water treatment as the water flows through the carbon filter media and other contaminant-reducing additives. For this reason, it is suggested that consumers use filtered water for both drinking and cooking. Of course, as more contaminants are trapped the flow rate is affected and this would be a sign to have your filter replaced. For a whole of house system, although the principle is the same, modern technology allows for much greater tolerance, treatment effectiveness and even automated flushing of the systems for longevity of media and convenience.
Generally filter changes are dependent on three factors, quality of your filter, volume of use and quality of your source water. As we use only the best quality filters, the filters purchased from Aqua Shield will depend on how water your household has consumed and the type of water we are treating. Simply look out for the obvious telltale signs that your filter require attention – water beginning to taste awful and/or the flow has reduced quite considerably indicating a blockage.
Just because you rent doesn’t mean you have to go without purified drinking water! There are many options available to you based on your plumbing setup and of course how sensitive your landlord is. Many landlords these days are happy to value add their property by including or adding a filtration system for drinking water.
However if you have one of “those” landlords give us a call, there are solutions and we can help. You can start by checking out our Aqua Shield System.
If you are living in a flat or high rise apartment where kitchen space is a premium you really must have our Hi Flow System, check it out. Of course, bottled water is always an alternative to tap (albeit a much pricier one), just remember that not every bottle comes “straight from the source.” Some bottled brands are simply purified tap water — or not even purified at all!
Generally speaking if you have any of the following under your kitchen sink, it is a very simple thing to have a filtration system installed.
We have many options of filtration even for the most restricted of space.
Yes. To ensure that your investment in a top end kitchen bench is not compromised in any way, we employ a specialist driller to drill the required hole for your faucet.
It’s no magic bullet, but the benefits of water are many. In fact, drinking water is essential to your health. Think of water as a nutrient your body needs that is present in liquids, plain water, and foods. All of these are essential daily to replace the large amounts of water lost each day from skin evaporation, breathing, urine, and stool, and these losses must be replaced daily for good health. When your water intake does not equal your output, you can become dehydrated. Fluid losses are accentuated in warmer climates, during strenuous exercise, in high altitudes, and in older adults, whose sense of thirst may not be as sharp.
1 Micron = 1 Thousandth of a Millimeter
40 Microns = Visible with Magnification
40 to 90 Microns = Diameter of a Human Hair
A micron rating for a fluid filter is a generalized way of indicating the ability of the filter to remove contaminants by the size of the particles. For example, a filter with a micron rating of 7 will filter out contaminants of 7 microns or larger and a filter with a micron rating of 3 will filter out contaminants of 3 microns or larger. Filter efficiency refers to a measurement of the filter’s retention efficiency.
The Water Authority is responsible for the supply of all of our drinking water. The drinking water from our taps is generally of good quality and is supposed to be regularly tested.
The Water Authority in WA adds fluoride and chlorine to our water supply schemes.
Fluoride is added to improve dental health. The dose rate is set by a steering committee which reports to the Minister for Health. Chlorine is used as a disinfectant and provides lasting, effective protection from the water treatment plant to your tap. It is especially effective where long pipelines and high water temperatures increase the potential for growth of harmful organisms in our water. Chlorine disinfectant is the primary disinfectant for drinking water in the world. There is concern in the scientific and regulatory community over the use of chlorine compounds to disinfect drinking water. This stems from the potential adverse health effects of the chemical by-products found in water as a result of their use. When chlorine enters water it reacts chemically with any organic matter found in the water. There is always some organic matter in natural waters. By-products of this reaction include trihalomethanes (THMs) such as chloroform. The chemistry of the production of trihalomethanes is very complex and the health risks are not fully understood. Trihalomethanes are also believed to be cancer causing.
The benefits of pre-treatment of our water supply with chlorine far outweigh the risks associated with no treatment or less effective treatment. Without treating our drinking water we would continually be infected by disease causing microorganisms. Historically, many deaths, sickness and misery are associated with untreated water. There appears to be no feasible alternatives which do not carry health risks.
The ultimate quality of your drinking water can also be very dependent on many other factors such as type of pipe works in the delivery system including in your home, age of the delivery system, over chlorination etc
At Aqua Shield water solutions, we service multi brands which means that we can supply, repair and service just about any drinking water filtration system. Our technicians are fully trained and our technical team have a wealth of knowledge and between them have over 10 years’ experience in the industry.
In general, a Water softener removes the minerals that make your water “Hard Water”. Hard Water is hard on your appliances, hard on your skin, hard on your laundry and your plumbing is not a big fan hard water either. It is hard to clean with, leaves water spots and soap scum deposits on your faucets and dishes.Removing hard water minerals with a water softener saves you time and money.
Many of your friends or neighbors who live in area would claim that water softeners are pretty much mandatory in our area. You can choose not to treat your water but it is typically more expensive and time consuming over time. So, if you are feeling like you would rather not spend your time or energy cleaning hard water deposits or buying chemical cleaners, You probably want to have a water softener installed.
A water softener also works extending the efficiency and the life of all water using appliances. Your dishwasher, laundry machine and water heater all benefit from using softened water.
In general, a water softeners work by removing problem minerals found in your water such as calcium and magnesium. Your incoming water rinses over resins placed inside a tank removing hard water elements from your working water, replacing these hard water minerals with sodium ions.
In practice, the science and operation of a water softener is fairly simple. Typically they are programmed to regenerate based on water consumption and water characteristics.Properly sized water treatment systems provide years of performance with minimal preventive maintenance.
Energy Savings: These savings come from your water heater. Hardness builds up on hot water heater elements and can lead to a dramatic drop in the heater’s efficiency. Soft water prevents this buildup from happening, and can reduce the effects of hardness build up that has already occurred with your water heater.
Washing Machines: Stain removal performance is dramatically improved when hardness is removed from water. When you have hardness in the water it is rougher on your clothes during the washing process, causing them to fade and wear out more quickly than if washed in soft water. Softening your water will allow you to use LESS detergent — detergent use can be reduced to 50%, and can save energy by washing in cold water settings instead of hot water settings
Dishwashers: Detergent savings up to 70% for washing with softened water. According to studies done by the Water Quality Association (WQA), softened water is 6 times more effective at reducing spotting and twice as effective at reducing film on dishes.
Appliances: Softened water can save you money by keeping appliances at top efficiency, and making them last longer.
Hair & Skin Benefits: Hard water causes a drying effect on the skin and hair, and soft water can reverse/prevent this.
“Hard Water” in the Red River Valley area is common. It causes calcium scaling, spots, stains and other annoying problems. Water contains dissolved minerals that occur naturally in water sources. But some water has such high levels of dissolved calcium, magnesium and iron, that it is called “hard water”. Our experience identifying local water traits and characteristics, in our local area, has helped many of your friends and neighbors solve hard water problems. We take pride in offering straight to the point answers to any questions regarding how to improve your water.
We feel our water softening systems feature the highest-quality materials available and have proven to work flawlessly for years. Aqua Shield Water Solutions feels having a partner that provides high quality long lasting products, certainly gives us the edge on our competitors. They provide valuable education and training so we feel confident that we have products to handle even the most problem water. Our factory trained technicians have the knowledge and ability to correctly size and install the correct equipment to not only handle your water problems now, but years from now also if a problem occurs.
The Backwash Digital Water Softener by Water Advanced digital valve that is user-friendly and efficient.
If you are seeking out solutions to your current water issues, contact us to schedule a no-cost, no-obligation appointment. We will test your water and offer an honest opinion of solutions that will solve your water problems.